Дж.М. Паулл. Історія, присвоєння та регулювання єврейських прізвищ у Російській Імперії
Jeffrey Mark Paull. The History, Adoption, and Regulation of Jewish Surnames in the Russian Empire https://www.academia.edu/14670640/The_H … ian_Empire
Although the exact years of the assignment of surnames isunknown, it appears from revision lists that most RussianJews acquired their surnames during the decade thatfollowed the edict of 1804.
Jewish surnames were often assigned by the Kahal (local Jewish community councils), or by the local Russianauthorities.
1784 Jewish Census for the Town of Slutsk:
Of the 11 Jewish families listed on this representative page of the census, therewere no surnames listed for any of them.
Most were listed by first name and patronymic name; a few were listed by firstname and nickname.
Names such as Hirsh Yankielovich (Hirsh, son of Yankiel) on line 1, and ShimanOsherovich (Shimon, son of Osher) on line 2 are actually patronyms.
So is Hirsh Iserovich (Hirsh, son of Iser) on line 3, Osher Shimanovich (Osher,son of Shiman) on line 4, and Leyba Eliovich (Leyba, son of Eli) on line 5.
Line 6 lists Berko Tokar. Tokar is a Polish nickname meaning turner or latheoperator.
Line 10 lists Szloma Szamasz. Szamasz is a Jewish nickname meaning sextonor beadle in a synagogue.
Line 11 lists Leyzer Bakalarz. Bakalarz is a Polish nickname meaning teacher.
An Example of a Census following the Czar’s Edict of 1804 Which Mandated the Adoption of Jewish Surnames
1811 Jewish Census for the Town of Slutsk
1811 Jewish Census for the Town of Slutsk:
This census shows two sons from Itzko’s household, Shmoilaand Leiba, who lived together during the 1784 census, nowliving in different homes.
As a result, they acquired their own distinct surnames –BRODSKOY and KRASKOV.
The third son, Girsh, died in 1796 and did not have a chance toacquire his own surname. As a result, his family is listed in the1811 census with no surname.
His son, Khaim-Itska, later acquired the IVANSKY surname thatwas his father's nickname in 1784.
Leiba’s and his late brother Girsh’s families lived next door toeach other in 1811, and Leiba most likely helped to support hisbrother’s family.
Пошук предків: Глушак (Брянськ.) Ковальов (Могилевськ.)
Оглотков (Горбат. п. НГГ) Алькин Жарков Кульдішов Баландин (Симб. губ.)
Клишкін Власенко Сакунов Кучерявенко (Глухів)
Кириченко Бондаренко Білоус Страшний (Новомоск. Дніпроп.)